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2010
Volume 1
Volume 1, Issue 1
In This Issue
S&T Trends - 2010 National R&D Budgets in East Asia
Special Articles
A Brief Review of International Experiences in Technology Foresight
Michael Keenan
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This paper provides a brief overview of international experiences in national technology foresight. It begins with an account of the diffusion of foresight practice between countries and within them, demonstrating its still growing popularity. The paper then describes the different rationales that justify the use of foresight, highlighting their shift away from an original R&D priority-setting focus towards a more process-oriented focus that emphasises dialogue and networking between different actors in national systems of innovation. The methodological approaches used in different countries are then compared, suggesting a possible link between method preferences and political and institutional cultures. In a penultimate section, the paper offers several explanations for the lack of evaluation of foresight. A final section briefly speculates on the continuing need for foresight in future years. The paper draws heavily upon the recently published Handbook of Technology Foresight, where the experiences of national technology foresight exercises conducted in many parts of the world are analysed in considerable detail.

National R&D Planning Strategy and Budgeting System in Korea
Byengmu Park
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Proposed increases to the Korean government’s R&D budget should be discussed based on the merits of meeting efficiency and effectiveness criteria. The evaluation of the national R&D budget and related programs are performed in two areas: a system of R&D budget coordination and allocation, and a system of R&D program performance. This paper mainly focuses on the operational areas of the R&D budget evaluation system with a focus on their impact on effi ciency and effectiveness. The core view point for a R&D budget evaluation system involves two directions: Firstly, to detail the relationships between the activities in the latter stage (ex. post) such as program surveys, analyses, and program performance evaluations, with the budget evaluation. Secondly, to oversee all R&D coordination and procedures a different perspective. Budgeting is generally known as a serial process of policy making, planning and executing. It is highly desirable for the budget to be allocated to, and spent by, specific programs as planned, and that each plan is aligned with a specifi c policy. As such, a strong relevance between the program structure and budget code system is integral to successful execution. It should be performed using a decisionmaking system that closely examines the link between policy and budget. It is also recommended that systematic relationships be maintained among budget coordination and allocation, performance evaluations of policy and program levels, and the program survey and analysis system, and that furthermore, their operational schedule should be reviewed comprehensively as one integrated system. The National Science and Technology Council is expected to play a major and practical role as the center of policy planning and should be supported by an objective and unbiased system which covers the overall process from policy making to program evaluation. Finally, increased utilization of contents, timely program survey and analysis, accurate scheduling of budget coordination and allocation, as well as diligent program performance evaluation, all contribute towards a more effi cient and effective overall evaluation system. 

Articles
Measuring the Quality of Research Performance by Relative Rank-normalized Impact Factor (R²nIF)
Yong-Jeong Kim, Min-Sun Yeo, Donghoon Oh
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Due to the recent rapid increase in the size of investment into R&D in Korea, the performance evaluation of government R&D programs has become an important issue in the evaluation and establishment of policies on R&D. Although the results of R&D are produced in a wide range of forms in accordance with the purpose of the R&D, in most cases, these results are primarily in the form of research papers or patents. Accordingly, the analysis of papers and patents is the most fundamental means of evaluating the research performance. This article attempted to analyze the qualitative status of government R&D programs in Korea and the world through an evidence-based approach with the SCI papers. A new qualitative measurement indicator for the SCI papers, namely the Relative Rank-normalized Impact Factor (R2nIF), which enables comparison between each fi eld of research, between each country and to global standards, was developed by compensating the limitations of the qualitative indicators that various research groups have been using. The results in the R2nIF analysis of government R&D programs showed that although the government R&D programs of Korea have been making contributions towards the enhancement of the qualitative level of SCI papers to a certain extent, the qualitative separation from the global standard still remains substantial, and is particularly large in the fi elds of Bio-science and Computer science. It is anticipated that the R²nIF developed in this paper can be appropriately applied to the majority of performance analysis and evaluation for which the collection of citation information is impossible.

Intrinsic Characteristics of Basic Research: With Focus on Horizontal Knowledge Transfer
Heyoung Yang, Sang-Ki Jeong, Hyuck-Jai Lee
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The paper studies the intrinsic characteristics of basic research. Its main purpose is to prevent a negative side effect, which is the possible distortion of the characteristics and the role of basic research, when both the reinforcement of innovation system effi ciency and the promotion of basic research are pursued simultaneously. Furthermore, the study clarifi es the role of basic research. Methodologically, we conduct a questionnaire survey and a paper citation network analysis. It turns out that the intrinsic characteristics of basic research can be explained by the uncertainty of reaching basic research results and the horizontal knowledge transfer. Our study also suggests that it is desirable to set the role of basic research, as the expansion of knowledge stock through both horizontal and vertical knowledge transfer, differently from that of applied research in the innovation systems.

Political Implications from Empirical Analysis of the Performance-Based Evaluation System in National R&D Programs
Seung-Tai Kim, Seong-Jin Kim, Ki-Jong Lee
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This study was conducted to draw political implications from an empirical analysis of performance-based evaluation systems of current National R&D Programs. For this, major issues on existing evaluation systems were identified through tracing and analyzing transition processes, investigating and analyzing related literature, and knowledge learned through experiences. Questionnaire research on how these issues are recognized by personnel concerned with R&D evaluation was conducted through empirical analysis. The result showed that the triennial evaluation system conducted from 2009 was generally recognized as helpful in alleviating evaluation pressures; however, the evaluated subject was still perceived poorly in terms of importance of R&D program evaluation and experience pressures in making evaluation data. Furthermore, there is plenty of room for improvement since evaluation does not refl ect the characteristics of R&D activities and the result is not fully utilized for internal purposes.

Book Reviews
"Program Evaluation and Performance Measurement: An Introduction to Practice" by James C. McDavid & Laura R. L. Hawthorn
Young-Soo Ryu
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"Scenario Planning: The Link Between Future and Strategy" by Mats Lindgren & Hans Bandhold
Hyun Yim
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Science and Technology Trends
2010 National R&D Budgets in East Asia-CHINA
Yougui Wang and Woo-Sung Jung
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2010 National R&D Budgets in East Asia-JAPAN
Hideki Iwabuchi
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2010 National R&D Budgets in East Asia-KOREA
Ik-Cheon Um
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