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Volume 6
Volume 6, Issue 1
In This Issue
S&T Trends - Gender Issues in Science and Technology in Asia
Special Articles
What is Essential is Invisible to the Eye: Industrial Policy as a Dynamic Interaction Process between Government and Firms
Seiichiro Yonekura


National Innovation Systems (NIS): Theories, Practices and Empirical Investigation with Non-parametric Partial Frontier Analysis
Munshi Naser Ibne Afzal and Shamim Ahmad Siddiqui

The main goal of this paper is to investigate national innovation systems’ (NIS) input-output components and model a robust efficiency measurement using the partial frontier order-α technique. We evaluate the innovation performance of 20 emerging and developed countries from the point of view of technical efficiency. Given that the innovation process is one of the main drivers for knowledge-based economic growth, it is clear that we need innovation policies based on rigorous quantitative analysis. Most of the previous NIS studies are descriptive and little emphasis is given to complex analysis. This study makes an important contribution using the partial frontier order-α technique whereby we rank the countries based on outliers-corrected estimation rather than only conventional DEA/FDH efficiency which often causes a dimensionality problem. The efficiency scores obtained from this technique demonstrate outliers-free results of benchmark countries. We suggest some key NIS policy implications that can be learned from the innovation leaders the study identifies.​ 


Indian Suppliers' R&D Experience and Innovation Success
Manoj Kumar, Jyoti Raman and Priya Raman

This paper analyses the role of Indian suppliers’ R&D experience in their innovative success using a representative sample of Indian suppliers for the period 2000-2013. Using count data models and within an innovation production function approach, we investigate the influence of Indian suppliers’ R&D experience in the achievement of innovative results. To estimate R&D experience, partially unobserved, we estimate a duration model and use the obtained results and a non-parametric procedure to impute R&D experience when unobserved. We obtain that R&D effectiveness increases along the R&D history of the Indian supplier.​


Aggregated Governance by R&D Evaluation Mechanism - Case Study of Chinese Academy of Sciences
Junwen Luo, Gonzalo Ordóñez-Matamoros and Stefan Kuhlmann

This article aims at increasing understanding of the role of R&D (Research and Development) evaluation mechanism in mitigating conflicts of governance under the organizational framework of Publicly Funded Research Institutions (PRIs). There has been a series of governance reforms within the Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS) in the past eighteen years. These vigorous reforms over the years have improved significantly CAS’s stability of organizational research landscape and focused governance of complex R&D across varying institutes, disciplines and fields. Dynamics of evaluation mechanism, as a key instrument of governance reforms, has experienced four stages from zero, being purely quantitative towards strategic usefulness and categorized principles. Organizational governance of CAS has been learning to be increasingly aggregated from the institutionalization of evaluation mechanism and the growing stakeholders’ communication and interactions. The roles of evaluation mechanism are for governing complexity and mitigating stakeholders’ tensions in CAS, which perform varyingly at different levels of organizational framework. CAS study offers insights for governance of developing large-scale PRIs under similar organizational framework especially experiencing big reforms.​


Science and Technology Trends
Gender Policies and Future Challenges in the Field of Science and Technology in Korea
Seon-Mee Shin


Gender in Science and Technology Workforce in Japan
Junko Okayama


Women's Participation in Science and Technology in Indonesia
Wati Hermawati and Trina Fizzanty


Gender, Science and Technology in a Male Dominated Society, Iran
Leila Mohajer