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2012
Volume 3
Volume 3, Issue 1
In This Issue
S&T Trends - Science and Technology Policy to address Social Issues in East Asia
Special Articles
Issues and Suggestions for Advanced Practices of Expert Review in the Evaluation of Science and Technology
Dong Hoon Oh
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With the increasing focus on productivity growth and global challenges such as climate change and energy security, there has been a growing focus on the evaluation of public support to R&D and innovation. In that respect expert review is in fact one of the most common methods used to evaluate public funding of science and technology. This article focuses on the role of expert review as a significant methodological tool for ex post and ex ante evaluations of research policies, programs and public research organizations (PROs). It describes the definitions, the key processes and uses of expert review especially at the program and policy level, summarizes the challenges and suggests potential solutions to these challenges for policy makers. The demand for effective evaluation tools to make decisions on research funding will continue to increase as countries try to enhance competitiveness and improve innovation capacity. In this respect expert review is a useful tool to meet accountability and effectiveness of public support, but it would be needed more research collaboration among researchers, policy makers, and stakeholders. This paper concludes with a list of principles and suggestions for good practices in the use of expert review in programme and policy evaluation that are based on findings from the literature on expert review and the experience of countries.

Articles
Technological Kuznets Curve? Technology, Income Inequality, and Government Policy
So Young Kim
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Existing research suggests the dual effects of technological advances on income inequality. This study proposes a “technological Kuznets Curve (TKC),” in which the technology-inequality relationship changes with the level of technological development. Two versions of TKC are developed, based on the role of technology as the engine of growth (leading to the inversely U-shaped relationship) and on the nature of Schumpeterian innovation (leading to the U-shaped relationship). The findings from the study’s data analysis suggest the U-shaped version of TKC, with strong empirical support for government redistributive policy in reducing technology-induced inequality.

The Planning and Implementation of Multi-Ministerial R&D Programs: A Focus on Trans-Governmental Whole-Cycle New Medicine Development Projects in Korea
Jieun Seong
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Pan-ministerial policy planning, coordination, and evaluation for innovation have emerged as important challenges as a new policy paradigm of integrated innovation policy is now being emphasized as a solution for various social issues. In particular, countries like the U.S., Japan, or Germany, whose R&D systems are quite distributed, are now stepping up their efforts to enhance the linkage and integration between policies by strengthening the planning and coordination functions of the government organizations in charge of innovation policy as well as by implementing various programs for this purpose. These countries are now trying to build a joint research platform and strengthen inter-ministerial cooperation and linkage in the process of implementing innovation. This will help to the achievement of a government’s overall goals rather than the achievement of narrower sector-oriented goals. Under these circumstantial changes in policy environment, it is worth noting that the pan-ministerial whole-cycle program to develop new medicine is a good attempt at introducing integrated innovation policy. This program has been developed to overcome the silo mechanism in R&D, which had long been considered a stumbling block in new drug development programs. Among the many programs, this program can be said to reflect the perspective of integrated innovation policy to its fullest extent in terms of inter-ministerial R&D program planning, organization, budget, and implementation body. This study will review this pan-ministerial whole-cycle new drug development program in Korea from an integrated innovation policy point of view. For this purpose, this study will review what integrated innovation policy is as a theoretical background, how it has emerged, and what specific policy measures exist for implementing an integrated innovation policy. For the purpose of serving the pan-ministerial whole-cycle program, this study will review the background and the contents of the program and will present policy suggestions required for achieving intended policy goals.

Development of Performance Criteria and Indicators for Government-Sponsored R&Ds: Assessing Different R&D Stage and Field Aspects
Daegeun Hong, Euiho Suh, Kiwon Lee
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Since the performance evaluation of government-sponsored R&D relies mainly on the evaluation by experts, it is difficult to analyze objectively the outcomes of R&Ds. Despite the fact that government-sponsored R&Ds contain the projects belonging to varied fields and in different stages of development, evaluation measures reflecting these natures are hardly seen in practice. To address this gap in research, it is necessary to develop the performance criteria/indicators reflecting the characteristics of government-sponsored R&D. In this study, we aimed to develop common performance criteria/indicators reflecting the characteristics and goals of large-size government-sponsored R&D programs, and individual performance criteria/indicators reflecting the characteristics of each research field. Using optimal majority rules, criteria and indicators reflecting the characteristics of R&D, fields were selected from a pool garnered from literature reviews. By using the Delphi method, criteria/indicators reflecting the characteristics of R&D stages were newly developed. Based on the analysis, a matrix of common and individual performance criteria/indicators suitable to evaluation of government-sponsored R&D program were newly constructed. 

Characteristics of Large-Scale Research and Development Projects: Case Analysis of the Korean Nuclear Fusion Energy Development Project
Sungshik Yoon
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This study is intended to analyze the characteristics of Korean science and technology R&D projects involving large-scale facilities and equipment with a focus on the case of the nuclear fusion energy development project. The characteristics of large-scale R&D projects is analyzed depend on this three viewpoints : uncertainty, asymmetries of information and path dependency. The analytical results of this study reveal that Korea’s nuclear fusion energy development project failed to consider uncertainty in the early stage of project planning and thus experienced problems. Also, due to information asymmetry, decision makers failed to acquire adequate information on the project, compared with other projects. Lastly, large-scale R&D projects pursed placed too much emphasis on efficiency and thus relied on a small number of experienced researchers for project implementation.

New Suggestion to Measure the Level of Technology Fusion: Technology Fusion Index
Jaebum Hong
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This study proposes the technology fusion index as a means to measure the intensity of technology fusion in SME research and development projects on fusion technology. The technology fusion index classifies technologies based on NSTSC (National Science and Technology Standard Classification), analyzes their contributions to the projects and applies Berry-Herfindahl index to measure between 1 and 0. The technology fusion index has the following advantages: First, it enables objective measurement of the level of technology fusion in research and development projects, fair selection of project tasks and effective assessment of project achievements. In addition, it can be combined with national science and technology statistics from NSTSC for more thorough analysis since it is based on NSTSC. The limitation of this study is that it fails to expand technology fusion to the industry level. The Korean government has expanded the concept of technology fusion to the industry level since the enactment of the Industrial Convergence Promotion Act in 2011, and has been making strenuous efforts to foster the industry as one of the country’s new growth engines. This study falls short of meeting such government expectations and the issue of technology fusion industry remains open for future research work.

Book Reviews
"Copycats: How Smart Companies Use Imitation to Gain a Strategic Edge" by Oded Shenkar
Yeonbae Kim
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"Mastering the Hype Cycle: How to Choose the Right Innovation at the Right Time" by Jackie Fenn & Mark Raskino
SeungPyo Jun
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Science and Technology Trends
Science and Technology Policy to Address Social Issues in East Asia-CHINA
Wenxia Zhang, Yandong Zhao
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Science and Technology Policy to Address Social Issues in East Asia-KOREA
Seokho Son
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